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Planets & Solar-system

Our solar system consists of the sun, eight planets, moon’s, dwarf planets, an asteroid belt, comets, meteors and others. The sun is the centre of our solar system whereas the planets, their moon’s, the asteroids comets and other rocks and gas all orbits the sun. The eight planets that orbit the Sun are Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. Recent studies state Pluto is not a ‘planet’ but a dwarf planet. Easy way to remember the order of the planets (and Pluto) are the mnemonics: “My Very Enchanting Mother Just Showed Us Nine Pizzas” (MVEMJSUNP). The Sun The Sun is the most prominent feature in our solar system. It is the largest object and contains approximately 98% of the total solar system mass. 109 Earths would be required to fit across the Sun’s disk, and it’s interior could hold over 1.3 million Earths. 1. Mercury:- Mercury was named by the Romans after the fleet-footed messenger of the gods because it seemed to move more quickly than any other pla
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Whale's & Dolphins

whales and dolphins are members of the scientific order Cetacean. Whale’s and Dolphins are warm blooded and bear their young alive and the babies nurse their mother’s milk. They live entirely in water but must breath air through their lungs. They have fish like bodies with a thick layer of fat or blubber to keep them warm. Dolphins and whales also have flippers for front limbs, but do not have hindi limbs. Unlike most other mammals, they have very little body hair. Seventy-five species of whales, dolphins and porpoises in the ocean all belong to the order Cetacea. They are the only mammals, other than manatees, that live their entire lives in the water. Some whales are huge. The blue whale, for example, grow to 100 feet in length and over 200 tons in weight. It is the largest animal that has ever lived on earth. Some whales, such as the Dolphins, grow only three feet long. Like other mammals, such as cats, dogs, deer, mice and humans, whales are warm-blooded. Whales breathe air and nur

About Zoo

About 1500 BC was when Queen Hatshepsut of Egypt decided to build a zoo, and about 500 years later around the year 1000 BC, the Chinese emperor Wen Wang founded the Garden of Intelligence. This was an enormous zoo that covered about 1,500 acres (607 hectares). Many small zoos were established between 1,000 and 400 BC by rulers from Northern Africa, India and China to show power and display wealth. To study animals and plants life, the ancient Greeks established public zoos. As part of their education, Greek students would visit the zoos. Near the end of the 1,400’s, global exploration brought Europeans to the New World. When explorers brought strange creatures back with them, it renewed the European’s interest in animals and zoos. In most modern zoos the exhibits resemble the animal’s natural habitat better than most of the old styles of zoos. For example, in the case of an animal that comes from an African plain, the people at the zoo will try to create a copy of an African plain in t

About Owls

Owls are nocturnal (who are active in the night) birds and so obviously hunt in the night. There are 133 different types of owls and more than 20 types are classified as threatened species. Nowadays very rarely owls are seen in the tropical forests because their homes are being destroyed. An owl can be easily recognised because of its unique appearance, it has a big face, huge eyes, hooked bill and claws called talons for seizing prey. It has a small body and huge wings with soft feathers so that it can silently approach its prey. The Snowy owl from the Arctic is about 60 cm long, while the Elf owl from North America is no bigger than a sparrow. Eagle owls are the largest owls, weighing about 4kgs. Sight and Sound Owls have good hearing capability as well as sharp eyesight. They can see ahead with both their eyes as they are in the front of their head, unlike other birds that have eyes on either side of their head. An owls eyes does not move in its socket, but an owl has a very flexibl


Radio owes its development to two other inventions, the telegraph and the telephone; all three technologies are closely related. This technology began as “wireless telegraphy”. This can refer to either the electronic appliance that we listed with or the content listened to. However, it all started with the discovery of “radio waves” – electromagnetic waves that have the capacity to transmit music, speech, pictures and other data invisibly through the air. Many devices work by using electromagnetic waves including: radio, microwaves, cordless phones, remote controlled toys, television broadcasts, and more. GUGLIELMO MARCONI Guglielmo Marconi, an Italian inventor, proved the feasibility of radio communication. He sent and received his first radio signal in Italy in 1895. By 1899 he flashed the first wireless signal across the English Channel and two years later received the letter “S”, telegraphed from England to Newfoundland. This was the first successful transatlantic radiotelegraph me

Mongol Empire

Late 1100s saw unification of wandering tribal men as a powerful army by a skilful chieftain, Genghis Khan. The tribes were that of the Mongols. Everyone there was already toughened by the harsh past life herding on the plains of northeastern Asia. He was deterred to build the nest army of that time; hence he opted for frightening cavalry. Use of modern war weapons of those times was not possible. In 1211, China had Mongol invasion sweeping through Asia. Moving at an unbelievable speed, they concentrated on the critical moments. The minutest of the detail was planned, thus implanting fear in the hearts of the enemies. With the death of Genghis Khan in 1227, his four sons took over the charge. They extended the region of Asia Minor into Europe. The empire broke down due to battle for power between the Mongolian kings. Composite Bow The bows used by them were made of wood, horn and sinew which endowed bow with an immense power. They had great skill in archery. They had also developed arm


The Vikings were people from Scandinavia, who began around the 400’s AD to make frequent raids by boat into Europe, even going into the Mediterranean Sea and raiding Sicily and southern Italy. The Vikings began attacking the Atlantic coast of southern France around 400 in 860 AD. Another branch of Vikings migrated south into Russia to trade with Constantinople. Russia, the Vikings gradually mixed with the Slavs who were living there and founded the country of Russia. Together, the Slavs and the Vikings took their boats down the Dnieper river to the Black Sea. here they traded and also raided the Roman territory around Constantinople, through they could not take the City itself. By about 1100, they had converted to Christianity. By 1000 AD, some of the Vikings settled in northern France, where they were called the Normans, or Northmen. The area where they settled is still called Normandy. WEAPONS AND ARMOUR The Vikings were greatly feared for their strength and skill in battle. They use

Dog Breeds and facts

The dog is a domesticated form of the wolf, a member of the Canidae family of the order carnivora. The domestic dog has been one of the most widely kept working and companion animals in human history. The dog quickly became ubiquitous across culture across the world, and was extremely valuable to early human settlements. Dogs perform many roles for people, such as hunting, herding, protection, assisting police and military, companionship, and more recently, aiding handicapped individuals. Currently, there are estimated to be 900 million dogs in the world. Over the 15,000 years span that the dog had been domesticated, it diverged into only a handful of landraces, groups of similar animals whose morphology and behaviour have been shaped by environmental factors and functional roles. As the modern understanding of genetics developed, humans began to intentionally breed dogs for a wide range of specific traits. Through this process, the dog has developed into hundreds of varied breeds and

Rivers and facts

A river’s source may be rainfall, a melting snow field or a glacier, a spring, or the overflow of a lake. Streams that flow at a river source are the headwaters and are at the river’s highest elevation. Most river headwaters begin in hills or mountain, but as the river flows downstream, it gains more water from other streams, rivers, springs, added rainfall, and other water sources. The Stages of River All rivers have an upper, middle and lower course. Young River – (The upper course) Middle Aged River – (The middle course) Old River – (The lower course) Uses of Rivers Rivers have always been important for travel, transportation and trade routes. Most settlements were built along major rivers. Rivers are also important for farming because river valleys and plains provide fertile soils. Farmers in dry regions irrigate their Copeland using water carried by irrigation ditches from nearby rivers. Rivers also are an important energy source. During the early industrial era, mills, shops a

Water and facts

Water is continuously moving around the earth and constantly changing its form. It evaporates from land and water bodies and is also produced by all forms of life on Earth. This water vapour moves through the atmosphere, condenses to form clouds and precipitates as rain and snow. In time, the water returns to where it came from, and the process begins all over again. Although water is constantly moving, its total quantity on Earth’s surface is constant.(Water Facts) Water vapour Water vapour is water in its gaseous state-instead of liquid or solid (ice). Water vapour is totally invisible. If you see a cloud, fog, or mist, these are all liquid water, not water vapour. Water vapour is extremely important to the weather and climate. Without vapour out it, there would be no clouds or rain ar snow, since all of these have their source in water vapour. All of the water vapour that evaporates from the surface of the Earth eventually returns as precipitation – rain or snow. Water vapour is als