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Mongol Empire

Late 1100s saw unification of wandering tribal men as a powerful army by a skilful chieftain, Genghis Khan. The tribes were that of the Mongols. Everyone there was already toughened by the harsh past life herding on the plains of northeastern Asia. He was deterred to build the nest army of that time; hence he opted for frightening cavalry. Use of modern war weapons of those times was not possible. In 1211, China had Mongol invasion sweeping through Asia. Moving at an unbelievable speed, they concentrated on the critical moments. The minutest of the detail was planned, thus implanting fear in the hearts of the enemies. With the death of Genghis Khan in 1227, his four sons took over the charge. They extended the region of Asia Minor into Europe. The empire broke down due to battle for power between the Mongolian kings. Composite Bow The bows used by them were made of wood, horn and sinew which endowed bow with an immense power. They had great skill in archery. They had also developed arm
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The Vikings were people from Scandinavia, who began around the 400’s AD to make frequent raids by boat into Europe, even going into the Mediterranean Sea and raiding Sicily and southern Italy. The Vikings began attacking the Atlantic coast of southern France around 400 in 860 AD. Another branch of Vikings migrated south into Russia to trade with Constantinople. Russia, the Vikings gradually mixed with the Slavs who were living there and founded the country of Russia. Together, the Slavs and the Vikings took their boats down the Dnieper river to the Black Sea. here they traded and also raided the Roman territory around Constantinople, through they could not take the City itself. By about 1100, they had converted to Christianity. By 1000 AD, some of the Vikings settled in northern France, where they were called the Normans, or Northmen. The area where they settled is still called Normandy. WEAPONS AND ARMOUR The Vikings were greatly feared for their strength and skill in battle. They use

Dog Breeds and facts

The dog is a domesticated form of the wolf, a member of the Canidae family of the order carnivora. The domestic dog has been one of the most widely kept working and companion animals in human history. The dog quickly became ubiquitous across culture across the world, and was extremely valuable to early human settlements. Dogs perform many roles for people, such as hunting, herding, protection, assisting police and military, companionship, and more recently, aiding handicapped individuals. Currently, there are estimated to be 900 million dogs in the world. Over the 15,000 years span that the dog had been domesticated, it diverged into only a handful of landraces, groups of similar animals whose morphology and behaviour have been shaped by environmental factors and functional roles. As the modern understanding of genetics developed, humans began to intentionally breed dogs for a wide range of specific traits. Through this process, the dog has developed into hundreds of varied breeds and

Rivers and facts

A river’s source may be rainfall, a melting snow field or a glacier, a spring, or the overflow of a lake. Streams that flow at a river source are the headwaters and are at the river’s highest elevation. Most river headwaters begin in hills or mountain, but as the river flows downstream, it gains more water from other streams, rivers, springs, added rainfall, and other water sources. The Stages of River All rivers have an upper, middle and lower course. Young River – (The upper course) Middle Aged River – (The middle course) Old River – (The lower course) Uses of Rivers Rivers have always been important for travel, transportation and trade routes. Most settlements were built along major rivers. Rivers are also important for farming because river valleys and plains provide fertile soils. Farmers in dry regions irrigate their Copeland using water carried by irrigation ditches from nearby rivers. Rivers also are an important energy source. During the early industrial era, mills, shops a

Water and facts

Water is continuously moving around the earth and constantly changing its form. It evaporates from land and water bodies and is also produced by all forms of life on Earth. This water vapour moves through the atmosphere, condenses to form clouds and precipitates as rain and snow. In time, the water returns to where it came from, and the process begins all over again. Although water is constantly moving, its total quantity on Earth’s surface is constant.(Water Facts) Water vapour Water vapour is water in its gaseous state-instead of liquid or solid (ice). Water vapour is totally invisible. If you see a cloud, fog, or mist, these are all liquid water, not water vapour. Water vapour is extremely important to the weather and climate. Without vapour out it, there would be no clouds or rain ar snow, since all of these have their source in water vapour. All of the water vapour that evaporates from the surface of the Earth eventually returns as precipitation – rain or snow. Water vapour is als


Cats have always been a source of fascination for mankind throughout history. Today cats have become one of the world’s most popular pets perfectly suited to the lifestyle of our day. They are beautiful, enigmatic and easy-to-care for pets. But where and when did the domestic cat originate? It has been about 4000 years since the first cats were domesticated. The Ancient Egyptians were the first to keep and use cats to control vermin and other pests to protect stores of food. In Ancient Egypt, the cat was reversed as a hunter and worshipped as gods and goddesses. The ancient Egyptians imposed the death penalty for killing cats and cats were also mummyfied before being buried. Other ancient civilizations later began to domesticate the cat and took tame felines to Italy where they slowly spread around Europe. The shorthaired domestic cat spread across the world from Egypt while long haired cats came later from Turkey and Iran. The domestic cat also spread from India to China and Japan. Ex


Birds of prey are birds that hunt for food primarily on the wing, using their keen senses, especially vision. They are defined as any bird that hunts other animals. Their talons and beaks tend to be relatively large, powerful and adapted for tearing and/or piercing flesh. In most cases, the female are considerable larger than the males. Eagles, Ospreys, Kites, Hawks, raptors, Vultures, Falcons are few birds of prey. But in there are more than 300 different kinds of species. Eagles are large birds with long, broad wings and massive feet. An osprey specializes in fish; Kites have long wings but relatively weak legs. The true Hawks are medium-sized birds of prey that usually have short broad wings and a long tail for tight steering and a characteristic flight pattern of several quick flaps and a hunt by sudden dashes from a concealed perch. Vultures are dead and putrefying flesh eating raptors. Members of both groups have heads either partly or fully devoid of feathers. Falcons are small

What is First Aid

During an urgent situation, immediately but calm assistance is crucial. For instance, somebody choking on food cannot hold on till a doctor arrives. Instead, nearby people much know how to remove the hitch soon so that the suffering person can breathe. Such instant help is termed as first aid. At times, first aid can serve as an alternative for a doctor. For example, for slight cuts and wounds, cleaning the wound and applying a bandage 🩹🩹🤕 is sufficient. When there is a broken bone due to injury, first aid could be to calm the patient and reaching him to the nearest medical aid. In case of a cardiac arrest or a traffic accident, first aid may involve restarting the patient’s heart. There is a serious caution that first aid without proper knowledge could be injurious also. FIRST AID TECHNIQUES The basic principle of first aid is to refrain from panic during emergency. Important techniques include helping an unconscious regain consciousness and preventing loss of blood. For someone wh

Who is Doctors

When we fall ill, the only person to help us out is the doctor. A doctor is a professional who is trained to cure the sick and treat them and also to prevent the diseases. The general practitioner is the first for all the basic problems. Then are the physicians who have the knowledge about the various diseases. They perform various treatments and also provide vaccinations. Depending upon the complication and the care needed, a surgeon can also be recommended. The body is cut open and the required treatment is done. Some other are pediatricians who are for treating the children. To be a licensed practitioner one has to do a graduate course in medical school and then an internship at hospital. Doctors Office A family doctor does sometimes visit sick patients at their place; or those who are not that unwell turn up at the office. There the patients and the doctor do a little query before deciding the treatment. A certain tests are also needed to make the treatment more precise and clear.

About Books

A collection of written, printed, illustrated or blank sheets, made of paper, parchment or other material, usually tied together to hinge at one side is called BOOKS . Books may also refer to a literature work, or a main division of such a work. In library and information science, a book is called a monograph, to distinguish it from serial periodical such as magazines, journals or newspapers. A lover of books is usually referred to as a bibliophile , a bibliophilist , or more informally, a bookwarm . A store where books are bought and sold is a bookstore or bookshop. The first books used parchment or vellum (calf skin) for the pages. The Arabs revolutionized the book’s production and its binding in the medieval Islamic world. They were the first to produce paper books after they learnt paper industry from the Chinese in 8th century. Library :-A collection of sources, resources and services and the structure is called a library. It is organised for use and maintained by a public body,